According to the Sediq legend, the Sediq people, as well as so-called Seediq and Sejiq, originated from Pusu Qhuni/RmdaxTasil (the Central Mountain Range), nowadays known as Mudanyan. After migrating from this place of origin, Sediq’s ancestors settled and populated in Deluwan (Truwan, called Plngebung by the Toda subgroup, located in Hezuo Village of Ren’ai Township in Nantou County today).
After living in Truku Truwan (Deluwan) for some time, the Sediq people gradually moved out of Deluwan around 18th century due to population growth and space insufficiency. After this migration, different groups adopted different names. The group that migrated to lower Deluwan - Wushe (the mountainous area across from Chunyang today) called themselves Tgdaya. The group that migrated to Tpwqo (Dadebuge), Kbayan (Gubayang), and Browan (Bulowan) across Mt. Qilai called themselves Truku. The group passed through the north peak of Mt. Hehuan to Shangmeiyuan (Zhu Village) called themselves Toda.
After migrating to Tgdaya, Toda, and Truku, each subgroup formed individual group identities. Therefore, they distinguished themselves as Seediq Tgdaya, Sediq Toda, and Sejiq Truku. The distribution of each subgroup is as follows:
1. Seediq Tgdaya
According to the historic documents of the Qing dynasty and Japanese colonization, the territory of Seediq Tgdaya covered the Wushe (Nantou) and Mugua (Hualien) Communities. Seediq Tgdaya in Nantou: This community was distributed in the Zhuoshui River and Mei River drainage basins between Wushe and Lushan in Ren’ai Township. After the Mushe Incident during Japanese colonization, Seediq Tgdaya people living in the east of Wushe were forced to migrate to the Qingliu and Zhongyuan (Huzhuo Village in Renai Township today) at the midstream of the Beigang River. Those settling deep in the mountain in the east of the Mei River migrated to the river valley around the Nanshan River (Fengjing Village in Ren’ai Township today). Currently, most of them settled in Huzhuo, Nanfeng, and Datung villages in Ren’ai Township, Nantou County. Seediq Tgdaya in Hualien: This community distributed in the Mugua River drainage basin. Due to the expansion of the Truku people in the late Qing dynasty, they migrated to Xikou Village in Shofeng Township and Mingli Village in Wanrong Township, Hualien County. Around 1945, they further migrated to Jiamin and Fushi Villages in Xiulin Township, and some migrated to the south in Jianqing and Wanrong Villages in Wanrong Township.
2. Sediq Toda
When migrating to Nantou in earlier times, the Sediq Toda people mainly settled in the Pingjing mountainous area in the north of Seediq Tgdaya. In the 18th century, they crossed over the north peak of Mt. Hehuan to the upstream and midstream of the Taosai River in the Hualien mountainous area, thus calling themselves Toda (also Daoje or Taosai). Currently, they mainly settled in Jingying and Chunyan Villages in Ren’ai Township, Nantou County; and Lishan and Lunshan Villages in Zhuoxi Township, Hualien County.
3. Sejiq Truku
In earlier times, the Sejiq Truku settled around Jingguan in Ren’ai Township, Nantou County. After migrating to Hualien, they mainly stayed in the Liwu River drainage basin. Currently, the Sejiq Truku mainly distributed in Songlin, Lushan, and Jinghuan Communities in Ren’ai Township, Nantou County; and Xiulin and Wanrong Townships in Hualien County. Some communities settled in Lishan in Zhuoxi Township, Qingfeng in Jian Township, Nanhua and Fuxing Villages.
In the 18th to 19th century, the Sediq people developed their territories in Nantou and Hualien on both sides of the Central Mountain Range. During Japanese colonization in the early 20th century, as the colonial government reckoned that the Sediq territory was government property, and due to the racism of the colonial police, Mona Rudo, chief of the Mahepo Community of Seediq Tgdaya, led the Mushe Incident that shocked the world in 1930. It was the last armed resistance against Japanese colonization in Taiwan. The incident shocked the Government-General of Taiwan and the international community and is significant in the history of Taiwan.
In consideration of ethnic identification, the Seediq Tgdaya, Sediq Toda, and Sejiq Truku subgroups requested ethnonym rectification as “Sediq Balay, Sejiq Balay, and Seediq Bale” respectively from the government in 2000. In 2008, the government thus recognized the ethnicity of the whole indigenous group as Sediq.