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Pinuyumayan

The political leader, priest, and witch play a professional role in different areas in the Pinuyumayan society to maintain the political, ritual, and healthcare needs of people in daily-life. The social relationship of Pinuyumayan males is represented by an age stratification and assembly hall system. While matrilineality is practiced, the clanship or lineal concept upon the mother’s lineage is emphasized in succession. Under the social influence and contact with the modern world, clanship has transformed to patrilineality.

Kinship Organization

Families sharing the same ancestor and the same family name belong to the same lineage. A lineage with a long history and a family name is called a “Big Lineal Clan”. A family split from a lineal clan with its own split families is called a “Small Lineal Clan”. A split family without split families is called a “Split Family”. A lineage usually consists of only one Big Lineal Clan and more than a dozen split families. A lineage sharing the same ancestor belongs to the same clan. Take the Zhiben Village (Katratripulr) for example. Under the Zhiben Village (Katratripulr), there are three clans, and each clan has a shared ancestor, a shared chief, and shared assembly halls. The clan leader also represents the clan to handle the community affairs.

Marriage

According to the Pinuyumayan tradition characterized by matrilineality and matrilocality (uxorilocality), the first daughter of the family will inherit the lineal name or family name and family property. Today, traditional matrilocality is rarely seen.

Tribal Organization

Traditionally, the chief (ayawan) is the political leader of the community responsible for coordinating all major community events and leading the village in head hunting (decapitation) and war operations. The priest (rahan) is a man that takes charge of and leads rituals and ceremonies. The rahan is a knowledgeable sage who must be familiar with the calendar, meteorology, and history; know traditional songs and dances; and provide guidance for farming and daily life. The witch (na temaramaw) can be a man or a woman who use magic to cure people’s illnesses and restore their health.

Age Stratification and Assembly Hall

Pinuyumayan juveniles aged 12-13 move into the Juvenile Assembly Hall (Dakuvan) to receive rigorous training, including physical and knowledge training, for 6-7 years. At age 17-18, Pinuyumayan juveniles will move to the Adult Assembly Hall (Palakuan) to receive further skill training falling into 4-5 stages. Members must obey their seniors, take up more labor work, and learn skills including racewalking, wrestling, survival in the wild, and hunting. In the awake of the importance of the traditional culture, the Pinuyumayan people built new assembly halls, established the youth association, and culture association in Zhiben (Katratripulr), Chulu (Ulivelivek), and Nanwang (Sakuban) in 1991; they started the pursue of searching their historical roots and revitalization of their mother tongue.