您的瀏覽器不支援Javascript,請開啓瀏覽器Javascript功能。 若您的瀏覽器無法支援Javascript,不會影響您瀏覽網頁。
::: 主內容區

網站搜尋

  • Legend

    The traditional deity belief of the Hla’alua people includes supernatural beings such as the life spirit, object spirit, and deities. According to past studies, the most important Hla’alua rituals are: Annual Rituals (Millet Farming Rituals and Rice Rituals), Miatungusu (Holy Shell Ritual), and Enemy Head Ritual. The Hla’alua people has one ritual that is quite different from the rituals of other ethnic groups: The Miatungusu (Holy Shell Ritual) is held every two or three years. As Hla’alua people reckon that the holy shell is where the primogenitor lives, they hold the ritual to pray for peace, good harvest, and community prosperity, and to worship the spirit of the primogenitor. Important Hla’alua rituals generally include: the Farming Ritual, Crop Rituals, Miatungusu (Holy Shell Ritual), and the Enemy Decapitation Ritual. These rituals are described as follows: 1. Farming Ritual Farming is the important economic activity of the Hla’alua people. Upland rice and millet are the major crops. Traditionally, the Hla’alua people have a calendar based on crop growth. A year begins with millet plantation and ends with upland rice harvest. This set of complete and rigorous rituals are closely related to agricultural activities. Therefore, Agricultural Rituals include the Millet Farming Rituals and Rice Rituals. The millet farming rituals are held to pray for a good millet harvest. They include the Lumalʉmʉkʉ (Sowing Ritual) held before sowing, Maitatahlamʉ (Pre-Harvest Ritual), Maavavarua (Tasting Ritual), the Cumacukuru (Storage Ritual), and the Apikaungu (Ancestral Spirit Tasting Ritual) held on the day after the Cumacukuru (Storage Ritual). The Rice Rituals are held to pray for the good harvest of upland rice. Upland rice was introduced to Hla’alua people by the Plains Indigenous peoples. As a result of cultural adoption, upland rice growing has gradually become part of the Hla’alua daily life. The Rice Rituals are similar to that of the Millet Rituals, except for the Apikaungu (Ancestral Spirit Tasting Ritual) held on the day after the Cumacukuru (Storage Ritual). 2. Miatungusu (Holy Shell Ritual) The Miatu

  • Ancestral Rules

    1. Political Activities Politically, the community is a polity called miararuma in the Hla’alua language, and it is also the basic unit of rituals. The Chief is the political head called kapitanʉ or rahli. The chieftainship is inherited by the first son, who is attended to and mentored by the elders in the clan until he is capable of leading the community. The kapitanʉ’s power is to manage community affairs, adjudicate disputes among tribespersons, and give commands to punish tribespersons. However, the Chief’s power is not absolute. Most affairs must be approved by the elder’s council called makarikari. Militarily, the maliialualu is the highest command selected by the elder’s council from among great warriors. Religiously, the tribal priest ʉlʉvʉ is the religious leader selected from among the elders. 2. Economic Activities Agriculture, mainly slash-and-burn agriculture, is the major industry of the Hla’alua people. They also engage in collection, fishing, hunting, and animal husbandry. The unique shared farming system called kiakucua has two implications. First, owners of adjacent fields farm the common area together to prevent disputes. Second, from the result of service marriage, shared farming is practiced at the groom’s field designated by the bride. These ways of land use have formed the Hla’alua agricultural tradition. Land is inherited by men. If a family has no man for inheritance, the clan will take over the property for farming by families with excessive labor. 3. Tradition and Clan Organization ◎ A family is the basic social unit called ucani pihlingi. Siblings can form their own families only after parents pass away. The family house is salia. It has thatch stalks and a thatch roof. Monogamy featuring patrilocality was strictly practiced in Hla’alua society, while polygamy or matrilocality was rarely practiced. Influenced by the migration of the Bunun and plains indigenous peoples, however, polygamy or matrilocality has increased (Liu, Pin-Hsiung, 1969:85). In addition to the agreement of the bride and groom, a marriage must be approved by the parents of both parties, who also host the wed

  • Culture

    1. Craft The Hla’alua people are good at hunting and tanning and have developed leather crafts and leather products, with leather clothes and leather headgear as standard men’s clothing. Men’s formal dress includes red long-sleeved upper garments and chest coverings, black short skirts, and the goatskin headgear. Women braid their hair with headscarves and wear the cock’s feather as headwear. They wear black skirts with a long-sleeved blue or white upper garment with cross-stitch embroidered patterns as the front ornament. Other crafts are mostly for practical use, such as tools for daily life, hunting, rituals, and children’s toys. Traditional men’s clothing includes shirts, headgear, and trousers made of the goat or muntjac leather. The Hla’alua people embed shells on the front of the leather headgear and sew five feathers on the side: two eagle feathers on each side and a white tail feather of the Mikado pheasant in the middle. Today, they have red fabric upper garments with five tri-color stripes on the back: yellow, green, white, green, and yellow from left to right, symbolizing familial and ethnic commitments. Women braid their hair with traditional headscarves and wear the cock’s feather as headwear. They wear black skirts with long-sleeved upper garments, blue or white depending on the tribal origin. Women of the Hlihlala Community in Taoyuan Village usually wear blue upper garments, and women of the Paiciana, Talicia, and Vilanganʉ communities in Gaozhong Village often wear white upper garments. It is said that they make headwear with the cock’s feather and wear it to commemorate the cock helping the ethnic group to negotiate with the sun, according to the legend. ◎ Daily Life Implements The Hla’alua people make daily life tools with various materials in nature, such as rattan, bamboo, shell-flower leaves, flaxen/ramie fibers, and scooped trees. For example, they make back baskets and back racks with rattan; sieves with bamboo; mats with shell-flower leaves; cages with bamboo or rattan; bags and fishing nets with flaxen/ramie fiber; tanks, mortars, steamers, millet containers, feeds contain

  • Geographic Distribution

    The Hla’alua people are formed by the Paiciana, Vilanganʉ, Talicia, and Hlihlara communities. They mainly settle in Gaozhong Village and Taoyuan Village in Taoyuan District and Maya Village in Namaxia District, Kaohsiung City. They call themselves “Hla’alua,” but the meaning of this term is unknown. It is said that Hla’alua ancestors originally lived in Hlasʉnga in the east with the dwarves. The kavurua (dwarves) reckoned that the “Takiarʉ” (Sacred Shell) is where “Taizu” (Shell God) resides. Every year, they held a grand ritual to pray for peace, good harvest, good catch, and community prosperity. When the Hla’alua people left the place of origin, the short people gave them an urn of Takiaru (Sacred Shells). The Hla’alua people also held the “Miatungusu” (Sacred Shell Ritual) like that of the short people. “Marinating Sacred Shells in wine” was the most important part of the ritual. In this process, the Hla’alua people marinated Sacred Shells in wine and watched the change of colors. If they turned red, this meant the Taizu was dead drunk, suggesting the ritual was a success. According to the records in the Chronicles of Taiwan, the Hla’alua people were called Neiyou Community or Meilong Community. In the late Qing Dynasty, the Han people called them “Dingsishe” (Top Four Communities). The Japanese adopted this term and called them “Shangsishe” (Upper Four Communities). Thereafter, the Hla’alua people were also collectively called the Four-Community or the Upper Four-Community. These four communities include: 1. Paiciana: The village is located on the table land at the mountain foot in the north of the drainage basin of the Laonong River and Putou River. Today, it is a school site. Village people mainly lived in three settlements: Village I, Village II, and Caoshui Checkpoint. 2. Vilanganʉ: The village is located on the table land across from the estuary of the Taluoliu River on the east bank of the Laonong River. Village people mainly distributed in the spacious drainage basin between the Laonong River and the Baolai River. In

  • Legend

    The Sediq people believe in supernaturalism, with utux (ancestral spirits) being the most important belief. Believing that ancestral spirits will affect fortune and misfortune in daily life, Sediq people strictly follow gaya, (the ancestral rules and code of conduct). Therefore, worshipping ancestral spirits is very important to them. After accepting Western religions in the 1960s, mostly Christianity, Sediq people have stopped almost all traditional rituals and ceremonies. With the rise of cultural awareness in recent years, some Sediq communitiess have resumed the ritual of ancestral spirits. To the Sediq people, ancestral spirits and gaya (ancestral rules) are very important. Such a culture is also reflected in the annual rituals and ceremonies. In rituals and ceremonies relating to agriculture and hunting, thanksgiving for ancestral spirits is an important part. Apart from worshipping ancestral spirits privately, the Sediq people also worship ancestral spirits in the community. The Ancestral Spirit Ritual is held after the millet harvest, and the actual time is determined by the chief or elders after discussions. When presenting offerings including wine, millet rice cakes, crops, fruit, and fish, the Sediq people tie them on bamboo, and elders call the ancestral spirits to consume them. After the ritual, they eat all offerings onsite. When leaving the ritual venue, they leave food waste onsite and cross over the fire to symbolize separation from the ancestral spirits. On the way home, they do not look back. The Ancestral Spirit Ritual was banned during Japanese colonization and has been held again in recent years.

  • Ancestral Rules

    1. Marriage The Sediq society is a patrilineal society. On job sharing within the community and families, except heavy laboring works and hunting are carried out by men, there are no gender specific limitations in general tasks and jobs. Sediq people practice monogamy. According to gaya’s (ancestral rules) code of marriage, cohabitation, infidelity, and unwed motherhood are strictly prohibited. 2. Community The chief is the community leader of the Sediq community. The chief is elected among intelligent and righteous people to represent the community in foreign affairs, negotiations, and settle disputes and maintain community harmony and peace. The heredity of the chiefship from the father to the son and the elder brother to the little brother is allowed with the recognition and trust of community members. In addition to competence, community’s recognition is also the key. Mona Rudo, chief of the Mahepo Community of Seediq Tgdaya, who led the Mushe Incident in 1930 is a good example. He was elected as the chief for this intelligence, excellence, and courage and he earned the appreciation of former chief Temu Robo and the recognition from members of the Mahepo Community. After taking up his chiefship, Mona Rudo was invited to visit Japan by the colonial government. Although he knew that Japan was advanced and powerful, due to the prejudice and exploitation of the colonial police, he decided to rebel after many conflicts. On October 27, 1930, Mona Rudo led the resistance against the colonial government on the sports day of Wushe Public School. The incident shocked both the colonial government and international communities. 3. Gaya (Ritual Group) “Gaya” is the important code of conduct and code of ethics in Sediq culture. As ancestral spirits will bring bad luck to the community for violating “gaya”, Sediq people follow these rules very carefully to avoid group endangerment. The context of “gaya” is the same in Sediq, Truku, and Atayal cultures. It refers to the systems and rules established by ancestors. Any gaya member who breaks the rules or disobeying taboos will affect all gaya members. Therefore, other membe

  • Culture

    1. Industry and Food The Sediq people used to mainly practice agriculture and hunting. Sweet potatoes, taro, glutinous millet, and common millet were the common crops and staple foods, while gourds, beans, and wild edible plants were the non-staple foods, and began growing upland rice in the modern times. Sediq people acquired meat by hunting for animals in between farming, including flying squirrels, wild boars, and Formosan sambar deers. They smoked and roasted meat for easier and longer preservation. 2. Clothing The Sediq people make clothes with ramie linen. Sediq clothes are characterized by their red color. Traditionally, both men and women wore linen capes. Men’s clothing commonly seen includes a white long-sleeved long top with red banded patterns. Women’s clothes are characterized by the long-sleeved short top with thin red stripes and a one-piece long skirt. Since the Japanese colonization in the 20th century, printed cotton fabric began gaining popularity. The long top is mainly made from red cotton cloth, with blue calico sleeves and shoulders, Mandarin collar, and small copper bells are sewn at the hem. In recent years, these features have been promoted through improvement of traditional attire to singularize Sediq cultural elements. 3. Art The Sediq people call weaving “tminun”, including weaving crafts and cloth weaving. The former is the traditional skill of men, while the latter is the traditional skill of women. Men weave daily life implements with the Formosan supplejack (Berchemia formosana), bamboo peels, and ramie yarn. Tools they make include back baskets, net bags, clothing baskets, fish nets, fish cages, fish baskets, and circular sieves. Cloth weaving plays an important role in Sediq culture. Women usually weave with the ramie yarn made from ramie fibers. After dyeing, they become fabrics for making clothes, accessories, and bedsheets. Common colors include green, red, yellow, black, and white. 4. Patasan (Facial Tattoos) The facial tattoo culture is extinct. As a sign of adulthood in Sediq culture, apart from being a cultural value, facial tattoos served as an embellishment and a method to avoid evil. The

  • Geographic Distribution

    According to the Sediq legend, the Sediq people, as well as so-called Seediq and Sejiq, originated from Pusu Qhuni/RmdaxTasil (the Central Mountain Range), nowadays known as Mudanyan. After migrating from this place of origin, Sediq’s ancestors settled and populated in Deluwan (Truwan, called Plngebung by the Toda subgroup, located in Hezuo Village of Ren’ai Township in Nantou County today). After living in Truku Truwan (Deluwan) for some time, the Sediq people gradually moved out of Deluwan around 18th century due to population growth and space insufficiency. After this migration, different groups adopted different names. The group that migrated to lower Deluwan - Wushe (the mountainous area across from Chunyang today) called themselves Tgdaya. The group that migrated to Tpwqo (Dadebuge), Kbayan (Gubayang), and Browan (Bulowan) across Mt. Qilai called themselves Truku. The group passed through the north peak of Mt. Hehuan to Shangmeiyuan (Zhu Village) called themselves Toda. After migrating to Tgdaya, Toda, and Truku, each subgroup formed individual group identities. Therefore, they distinguished themselves as Seediq Tgdaya, Sediq Toda, and Sejiq Truku. The distribution of each subgroup is as follows: 1. Seediq Tgdaya According to the historic documents of the Qing dynasty and Japanese colonization, the territory of Seediq Tgdaya covered the Wushe (Nantou) and Mugua (Hualien) Communities. Seediq Tgdaya in Nantou: This community was distributed in the Zhuoshui River and Mei River drainage basins between Wushe and Lushan in Ren’ai Township. After the Mushe Incident during Japanese colonization, Seediq Tgdaya people living in the east of Wushe were forced to migrate to the Qingliu and Zhongyuan (Huzhuo Village in Renai Township today) at the midstream of the Beigang River. Those settling deep in the mountain in the east of the Mei River migrated to the river valley around the Nanshan River (Fengjing Village in Ren’ai Township today). Currently, most of them settled in Huzhuo, Nanfeng, and Datung villages in Ren’ai Township, Nantou County. Seediq Tgdaya in Hualien: This community distributed in the Mugua River drainage basin. Due

  • Legend

    The Sakizaya people believe in animism, that supernatural power is everywhere, and communication with the supernatural power must be conducted through mapalaway (the priest). Traditional Sakizaya deities include the Malataw (God of all beings), the Dungí (God of protection), the Ditu nu babalaki (ancestral spirit), and the Ditu (nature spirit). Each deity has its respective duty and worship ritual. After coming into contact with external religions, some Sakizaya people also believe in Han religions and Christianity. The deity belief affects the daily life and health of the Sakizaya people. As a result, the Sakizaya people have developed agriculture-related rituals, such as the Mitiway a Lisin (Sowing Ritual), Collecting Ritual, Malaliki’ (Harvest Ritual), Musingá (Storage Ritual), Misaurad (Rainmaking Ritual), and ritual of worshipping the God of Sea. These rituals are held according to the Sakizaya four seasons: pasavaan (spring), ralud (summer), sadinsing (autumn), and kasinawan (winter). The Mitiway a Lisin (Sowing Ritual) is held between February and March on the lunar calendar, the Miládis (God of Sea Ritual) is held between May and June in the lunar calendar, the Harvest Ritual is held in August on the lunar calendar after crops are collected, and the Musingá (Storage Ritual) is held at the end of the year. Due to the changes in the social environment, these agricultural rituals have gradually been simplified, and only the Malaliki’ (Harvest Ritual) is still held regularly. 1. Agricultural Rituals While millet is the main offering in agricultural rituals traditionally, the Sakizaya people have developed the Mitiway a Lisin (Sowing Ritual), the Kailisinan (Harvest Ritual), and the Musingá (Storage Ritual) according to the growth seasons of millet. As rice has replaced millet as the main source of food, the timeline of these rituals has been changed in line with the growth seasons of rice. ◎ Mitiway a Lisin (Sowing Ritual) In February to March on the lunar calendar, the cilisinay (ritual convener) calls for the ritual. Apart from worshipping the Malataw (Creation God), the primary duty of this ritual is sowi

  • Geographic Distribution

    According to the Sakizaya legend, ancestors of this ethnic group settled in the Hualien Plain after migrating to eastern Taiwan from overseas. Their name appeared in the Dutch and Spanish records in the 17th century. When the Qing government began cultivating eastern Taiwan and the mountain area aggressively in the late 19th century, the officials and troops were rude and unreasonable and treated the Sakizaya people unfairly, disturbing the life of local indigenous peoples. In 1878, the Sakizaya people defended themselves against the Qing troops in collaboration with the Kavalan people. The resistance is called the Takubuwa Incident (Takubuwa a kawaw to Sakizaya people and Jialiwan Incident or Lanas na Kabalaen to Kebalan people). After the incident, the Sakizaya people were injured and killed, the community migrated, and the language and culture were hidden for 100 years, severely impacting the Sakizaya cultural heritage. After the incident, the Sakizaya people were separated, migrated, and remained silent for 100 years. As many of them have lived and interacted closely with the Amis people, the subjective culture of the Sakizaya people has become gradually indistinct. When Japanese colonization began at the turn to the 20th century, anthropologists considered the Sakizaya social and cultural characteristics as part of the Amis culture. In the late 20th century, the Sakizaya people finally sorted out their own cultural characteristics through history. Apart from demonstrating their cultural characteristics in ethnic attire and the fire god ritual, they implemented the cultural revitalization movement out of ethnic self-awareness. In 2007, the government recognized the Sakizaya as one of Taiwan’s indigenous peoples. Starting from the Hualian Plain, the Sakizaya people migrated outside the plain to the East Rifted Valley and coastal area due to the rapid social environmental change from regime change after the Takubuwa Incident. Today, most Sakizaya people have settled in Beipu (Hupú) Community in Xincheng Township of Hualien County; Guofu Village (Kasyusyuan), Cupú Community, Pazik Community, and Sakul Community in Hualien City; Maliyun (Ma