Project Goal This Project aims to assist with the provision of wireless broadband service in indigenous communities. By improving IT infrastructure construction in indigenous townships, suitable integrated services and applications are developed to narrow the digital divide in indigenous communities. By combining with indigenous community building, broadband networks are built in indigenous community culture and health stations to turn these stations into the “Tribal Heart” integrating elderly long-term care, child daycare, e-learning, and cultural promotion for indigenous people through the following objectives: 1. Establishing free outdoor wireless broadband service in indigenous townships to connect to the digital economy and applied health services, in order to narrow the digital divide in indigenous townships, integrate digital resources for indigenous peoples, and promote the development of education, culture, well-being, healthcare, economy, and tourism for indigenous peoples through sharing. 2. Resolving product distribution channels in indigenous townships with internet marketing through the business operation locations established by the Council of Indigenous Peoples (CIP) for metropolitan consumers to reach indigenous products, to establish links between metropolitan areas and indigenous industries, and to incorporate industry links and build business models through the industry characteristics building under the CIP economic and industrial development plans, in order to optimize business operation alliances and develop indigenous tourism for the sustainable development of regional industries. Based on the results of internet search, as the “Free Wireless Outdoor Broadband for Indigenous Communities” is first in the world, there are no other references so far. Task Sub-Plan Title Implementation Strategy (please state by detailed section, sub-plan). Wireless Broadband for Indigenous Communities Fre
I. Project Overview An “indigenous village” is the political subject and daily life center of indigenous regions and forms part of the mutualism with nature. To maintain the public safety, public transport, and public health and promote infrastructure construction in villages, the Council of Indigenous Peoples (CIP) subsidizes local governments to improve and construct indigenous infrastructure within the “village” as the subject of future development and planning based on the policy for “indigenous environmental sustainable development” to re-cohere the ethnic core value in indigenous regions and achieve indigenous environment regeneration and indigenous culture succession. II. Project Goal Indigenous infrastructure in indigenous regions is characterized by quantity insufficiency and service underperformance. As a result, both the living environment and living quality are deteriorating to affect the overall landscape and cultural heritage of the villages. Therefore, the suitability and adequacy of infrastructure in indigenous regions have become exceptionally important. 1. Improving the Functions and Quality of the Indigenous Living Environment Starting from internal indigenous development, rural transformation is implemented to improve the fundamental public facilities in indigenous regions. 2. Cohering Awareness to Promote Indigenous Culture Succession Indigenous open space is usually the common area for local recreation and leisure, rituals and ceremonies, and cohesion of indigenous spirit. Through the construction and transformation of the indigenous assembly hall, an indigenous living vision is achieved, indigenous cultural value is enhanced, and indigenous cultural exchange is promoted. III. Subsidized Items 1. Project Subsidized Items To achieve the project goals, the project is implemented in two parts: The “Indigenous Infrastructure Improvement Plan” and “Indigenous Cultural Assembly Hall Construction and Transformation Plan” as shown in Table 3-1. Table 3-1 Contents of Plans Type of Plan Objectives
Jianshi Township Cultural Center, Jianshi Township, Hsinchu County paSta'ay Artifacts Exhibition Hall of Saisiat tribe, Wufeng Township, Hsinchu County Atyal Life Muzeum, Datong Township, Yilan County Nan'ao Atayal Museum, Yilan County SaySiyat Museum, Miao-li County No. 25, Xiangtianhu, 16th Neighborhood, Donghe Vil., Nanzhuang Township, Miaoli County 35346, Taiwan (R.O.C.) Taichung Aboriginal Integrated People Service Center No. 69, Ren’ai Rd., Zhongyi Vil., Daya Dist., Taichung City 42879, Taiwan (R.O.C.) Cou Culture Center, Alishan Township, Chiayi County No. 6, 1st Neighberhood, Dabang Vil., Alishan Township, Chiayi County 60593, Taiwan (R.O.C.) Tainan City Aboriginal Cultural Museum 3F., No. 88, Yongda 2nd Rd., Yongkang Dist., Tainan City 71089, Taiwan (R.O.C.) Aboriginal Cultural Museum, Taoyuan Dist., Kaohsiung City No. 180, Nanjin Ln., Taoyuan Vil., Taoyuan Dist., Kaohsiung City 84841, Taiwan (R.O.C.) Pingtung
Project Goal (1) To construct or deepen industrial demonstration highlights with indigenous cultural characteristics and strengthen integration of cross-industry technologies and resources to build an environment for sustainable development. (2) To discover and develop industrial operation and management talents in indigenous peoples and enhance industry-academia collaboration to fill the job openings with the “learning by doing and doing while learning” strategy. (3) To develop and publicize indigenous brands and ensure brand uniqueness and representativeness through storytelling marketing and quality optimization. (4) To enhance investment in and guidance for indigenous startup strategies and search for appropriate business models to stabilize startup foundation and deepen industrial roots. (5) To enhance connection between metropolitan areas and indigenous townships and achieve complementation with a “front shop (metropolises), back factory (indigenous townships)” model to circulate the products and services of indigenous peoples. (6) To produce gender statistics, increase opportunities for indigenous women to participate in making decisions for economic and industrial development, and build a gender friendly environment. Strategy and Method Major Work Items To adhere to the outcomes of the previous plan, this plan will be implemented inby phases to broaden the scope of service and deepen the magnitude of guidance. From the fundamental environment deployment, industrial talents development, and brand channel construction, apart from consolidating the capital, talents, channels, and marketing resources required for economic and industrial development, guidance will be enhanced and knowledge will be developed for industrial demo highlights to carry forward the featured agriculture, cultural and industrial industries, and ecotourism industry based on indigenous knowledge, and extend to digitization, ICT, green energy, and biotechnology, or combine with sports, leisure, and healthcare for cross-sector development, in order to create new opportunities for diversification of industrial development.
The demonym, Thao, meaning “people”, of the Thao people was introduced by Japanese scholars during Japanese colonization. It is said that the ancestors of the Thao people originally settled in Jianan Plain. When entering the Central Mountain Range during hunting, they accidentally found a rare white deer. After chasing it for days to what is today’s Tutingzi (Puzi), the white deer immediately jumped into the Sun Moon Lake. The Thao people stopped and found that it was a fertile place with many fishes, suitable for farming, hunting, and fishing. Therefore, they brought other Thao people to settle there. Lalu (formerly called Guanghua Isle, Zhuzi Isle) is the supreme ancestral spiritual place to the Thao people in the Sun Moon Lake area. In the Qing dynasty, the place was called “Shuishalian”, there were Tou (Shtafari) Village, Shui Village, Maolan Village, Shenlu Village, Pu Village, and Mei Village, collectively they were called the “Shuishalian 6 Villages”. During over 200 years of the Qing dynasty, as the Han immigrants sought land and the government implemented the wilderness cultivation and forest development policies, the original Thao territory was divided and reduced, and their influence in Shuishalian gradually disappeared. During Japanese colonization, some Thao people continued to settle in Ding (tao) Village, Neiaozi Village, Shiyin Village, Shuiwei Village, Shui Village, and Maolan Village. When the area was flooded after the construction of the Sun Moon Lake hydroelectric power plant, the Thao people were forced to migrate to Ita Thao (Barawbaw) Village. In addition, thanks to the colonial government’s tourism promotion, Sun Moon Lake, the Thao tourism and the pounding performance have become one of the “Eight Wonders of Taiwan”. Colonial prohibition was abolished since the R.O.C government took the reign, and many Han people moved and engaged in commerce there, the Han population started to increase . To improve local living quality, the government implemented urban re-zoning in the region in 1983. As a result, more land of the Thao people was split and expropriated for more business gro
1. Industry and Food Through early contact with other ethnic groups, “upland rice” and “rice” have become the staple food of the Thao people during the farming period. Non-staple food includes the sweet potato, taro, peanuts, corn, and wild edible plants and fruits. In addition to hunting, fishing is an important food source of the village and families. As Sun Moon Lake has rich seafood output, the Thao people cure their catch for preservation, making cured seafood one of the Thao specialty foods. Today, Ita Thao (Barawbaw) Village has become a famous tourism spot, and no farming is practiced anymore. Except for homegrown vegetables and seasonal bamboo sprouts, most Thao people engage in the tourism business and catering service. 2. Clothing Traditional Thao men’s and women’s clothing. (Women holding a pestle.) In the Qing dynasty, the “Dagobum” cloth of the Thao people earned fame, as recorded in the Imperial Qing Portraits of Periodical Offering. Dagobum is a cloth knitted with flax yarn and dog fur. Influenced by trade and exchange, the Thao people have switched to cotton fabrics of higher availability. Traditional men’s Thao clothing is made of leather, linen, and bark, including the leather headgear, headwear, chest wear, vest, skirt, breech-less trousers, and leather shoes. Traditional women’s Thao clothing is made of linen and cotton, including the headscarf, top covering, chest wear, skirt, waist belt, knee coverings, and floral headgear. Dark brown, light brown, blue, grey, and black are the common colors of Thao attire, and geometric patterns are common. 3. Craft ◎ Shipbuilding: Early Thao people emptied an entire tree to make a canoe, which was the principal vehicle for external transportation. Public canoes for a maximum of 5-6 passengers are for servicing kinsmen, while canoes for family use or fishing are smaller, for a maximum of 2 passengers. After the restoration of Taiwan, logging is prohibited, and the traditional technique of making canoes by emptying trees is rarely seen and nearly extinct. Today, canoes are made of patched wood boards. ◎ Poundings: On the last night of every
1. Kinship Organization Thao society is a patrilineal society. Intermarriages between clans were observed. In early days, they usually married within the same clan. In recent years, marriage across clans is becoming increasingly popular. In addition to being a marriage unit, the clan is also a kinship unit. In general, a clan is formed by people carrying the same family name. They are usually members of different worship groups playing different roles in rituals. The Thao people adopted seven Han surnames: Shinawanan, Shkatafatu, Shkapamumu, Shkahihian, Shtamarutaw, Shapit, and Shtanakjunan. Each is a transliteration or translation of the corresponding Thao surname in the Thao language. For example, Shinawanan means circular, and they picked a character with the same sound as “circle” in Mandarin Chinese; Shkapamumu means strong, and they picked the declination “mumu” and transliterated it in Mandarin Chinese. 2. Ita Thao Organization The Thao people still maintains a dual-chief system. Today, it is the Shinawanan and Shkatafatu families. The chiefdom is inherited, and a chief helps settle disputes among people and implement the resolutions made by the community meeting and the elder council. In annual ceremonies, the chief is the ritual master.
The Thao people mainly reside in Ita Thao (Barawbaw) Village, Yuchi (Qabizay) Township, Nantou County, and Dapinglin Settlement, Shuili Township, Nantou County. Currently, the Thao population is around 817 people (as of January 2020). The Thao people living in Ita Thao Village still preserve the traditional Thao belief of the ancestral spirit and worship the ulalaluan (ancestral spirit basket) in the house as a physical symbol of existence of the ancestral spirit. Major traditional Thao rituals and ceremonies include the Azazak Pulako (Sowing Ritual) in March, the Mulalu Matansun Pintuza (Hunting Ritual) in July, and the Lus’An (Ancestral Ritual) in August. Agricultural rituals and ceremonies reflect the correlations between seasonal changes and the lifestyle of Thao people. At the hunting ritual, Thao people make glutinous rice cakes in the form of an eel as an offering to show their respect for hunting and fishery in the culture. The Ancestral Ritual in August is the most important and solemn ceremony. In addition, Thao people adopt the lunar calendar. Thao_1024_邵族.jpg
The traditional deity belief of the Hla’alua people includes supernatural beings such as the life spirit, object spirit, and deities. According to past studies, the most important Hla’alua rituals are: Annual Rituals (Millet Farming Rituals and Rice Rituals), Miatungusu (Holy Shell Ritual), and Enemy Head Ritual. The Hla’alua people has one ritual that is quite different from the rituals of other ethnic groups: The Miatungusu (Holy Shell Ritual) is held every two or three years. As Hla’alua people reckon that the holy shell is where the primogenitor lives, they hold the ritual to pray for peace, good harvest, and community prosperity, and to worship the spirit of the primogenitor. Important Hla’alua rituals generally include: the Farming Ritual, Crop Rituals, Miatungusu (Holy Shell Ritual), and the Enemy Decapitation Ritual. These rituals are described as follows: 1. Farming Ritual Farming is the important economic activity of the Hla’alua people. Upland rice and millet are the major crops. Traditionally, the Hla’alua people have a calendar based on crop growth. A year begins with millet plantation and ends with upland rice harvest. This set of complete and rigorous rituals are closely related to agricultural activities. Therefore, Agricultural Rituals include the Millet Farming Rituals and Rice Rituals. The millet farming rituals are held to pray for a good millet harvest. They include the Lumalʉmʉkʉ (Sowing Ritual) held before sowing, Maitatahlamʉ (Pre-Harvest Ritual), Maavavarua (Tasting Ritual), the Cumacukuru (Storage Ritual), and the Apikaungu (Ancestral Spirit Tasting Ritual) held on the day after the Cumacukuru (Storage Ritual). The Rice Rituals are held to pray for the good harvest of upland rice. Upland rice was introduced to Hla’alua people by the Plains Indigenous peoples. As a result of cultural adoption, upland rice growing has gradually become part of the Hla’alua daily life. The Rice Rituals are similar to that of the Millet Rituals, except for the Apikaungu (Ancestral Spirit Tasting Ritual) held on the day after the Cumacukuru (Storage Ritual). 2. Miatungusu (Holy Shell Ritual) The Miatu
1. Political Activities Politically, the community is a polity called miararuma in the Hla’alua language, and it is also the basic unit of rituals. The Chief is the political head called kapitanʉ or rahli. The chieftainship is inherited by the first son, who is attended to and mentored by the elders in the clan until he is capable of leading the community. The kapitanʉ’s power is to manage community affairs, adjudicate disputes among tribespersons, and give commands to punish tribespersons. However, the Chief’s power is not absolute. Most affairs must be approved by the elder’s council called makarikari. Militarily, the maliialualu is the highest command selected by the elder’s council from among great warriors. Religiously, the tribal priest ʉlʉvʉ is the religious leader selected from among the elders. 2. Economic Activities Agriculture, mainly slash-and-burn agriculture, is the major industry of the Hla’alua people. They also engage in collection, fishing, hunting, and animal husbandry. The unique shared farming system called kiakucua has two implications. First, owners of adjacent fields farm the common area together to prevent disputes. Second, from the result of service marriage, shared farming is practiced at the groom’s field designated by the bride. These ways of land use have formed the Hla’alua agricultural tradition. Land is inherited by men. If a family has no man for inheritance, the clan will take over the property for farming by families with excessive labor. 3. Tradition and Clan Organization ◎ A family is the basic social unit called ucani pihlingi. Siblings can form their own families only after parents pass away. The family house is salia. It has thatch stalks and a thatch roof. Monogamy featuring patrilocality was strictly practiced in Hla’alua society, while polygamy or matrilocality was rarely practiced. Influenced by the migration of the Bunun and plains indigenous peoples, however, polygamy or matrilocality has increased (Liu, Pin-Hsiung, 1969:85). In addition to the agreement of the bride and groom, a marriage must be approved by the parents of both parties, who also host the wed